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November 2023 - Laboratory of Equipment Design @ Different NFDI Consortia (NFDI4Ing, NFDI4Chem, MaRDI4NFDI, NFDI4Cat)

In the last two months, most of the National Research Data Infrastructure (NFDI) consortia have held their annual conferences and workshops. The laboratory of Equipment Design, which is itself a member of the NFDI for Catalysis related Research (NFDI4Cat) consortium, is proud to announce that we have contributed to the development of the scientific landscape by contributing to the other consortia. Alexander Behr and Hendrik Borgelt gave poster presentations and talks at events of NFDI for Chemistry (NFDI4Chem), NFDI4Cat, Mathematical Research Data Initiative (MaRDI / MaRDI4NFDI) and NFDI for Engineering (NFDI4Ing).

Links to the respective consortia can be found here:

 

NFDI: https://www.nfdi.de/

NFDI4Chem: https://www.nfdi4chem.de/

NFDI4Cat: https://nfdi4cat.org/en/

MaRDI / MaRDI4NFDI: https://www.mardi4nfdi.de/about/mission

NFDI4Ing: https://nfdi4ing.de/de/

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Oktober 2022 - Laboratory of Equipment Design @ ProcessNet and DECHEMA-BioTechNet Jahrestagungen 2022

We presented and discussed our research results at a joint event of ProcessNet and DECHEMA-BioTechNet entitled "(Bio)Process Engineering - a Key to Sustainable Development Key to Sustainable Development" in September 2022. The conference was held at the Eurogress, Aachen/Germany and provided an opportunity to discuss ideas and contact colleagues in a relaxed atmosphere.

The posters of Stefan Höving, Bastian Oldach and Robin Dinter were discussed during the poster party. Stefan Höving (left) presents the topic "Validation of a single temperature module to describe the entire cooling crystallization process on a filter belt crystallizer". The topic "3D-printed Microfluidic Device for Continuous Liquid-Liquid Phase Contacting and Separation" was presented by Bastian Oldach (middle). Robin Dinter (right) presents the topic "Two-Phase Flow Reaction System for Amide Coupling towards Automated DNA-Encoded Chemistry".

The topic "Solvent Extraction Column Control with Reinforcement Learning (RL)" was presented by Laura Neuendorf. Aljoscha Frede talked about "Determination of Reaction Kinetics with an Automated Flow Calorimetry System". It was his last presentation during his PhD-studies. Congratulations!

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September 2022 - Laboratory of Equipment Design @ ACHEMA 2022

From 22th to 26th August, members of the Laboratory of Equipment Design (AD) presented their research results at ACHEMA 2022. In addition to main results in the field of artificial intelligence, which were exhibited at the booth of the KEEN research project, the ACHEMA 2022 symposium was also a great success. There, AD’s research was also be represented in two talks in the fields of modular sensors and reinforcement learning.

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August 2022 - AD at the Annual Meeting on Reaction Engineering

Aljoscha Frede presented and discussed his research results at the Annual Meeting on Reaction Engineering in Würzburg in July 2022. After a two-year break, the meeting took place again as a physical event.
The Poster of Aljoscha Frede on the topic "Flow Calorimetry for Highly Exothermic Reactions" was discussed during the poster party. There, he also had the oppurtunity to meet project partners from BASF, Evonik and the Fraunhofer ICT.
The meeting was jointly organized by the ProcessNet Subject Divisions Reaction Engineering and Heat and Mass Transfer. Hence, the venue was switched from Festung Marienberg to Congress Centrum Würzburg. The conference dinner took place in the beer garden of Würzburger Hofbräukeller, which gave the oppurtunity to meet colleagues in a relaxed atmosphere to continue discussions and to connect with each other.

Poster JT Reaktionstechnik_Frede_Continuous Flow Calorimetry for Highly Exothermic Reactions_Ausschnitt

July 2022 - AD at the micro Flow and Interfacial Phenomena (µFIP) Conference

We presented and discussed our research and its results at the µFIP 2022 Conference in Irvine (California, USA) in June 2022. There, our PhD students met Ya-Yu Chiang and her research team, among others (top left). Inga Burke (top right) and Bastian Oldach (bottom left) presented their results at a conference for the first time. Congratulations! "Light Dependent Resistor for Online Dispersion Point in Time Detection in Emulsification Processes via Minichannel Bypass" was presented by Inga Burke and "Micro-Computed Tomography for 3D-Imaging of Liquid-Liquid Interfaces in Capillary Flow" by Bastian Oldach. Laura Neuendorf gave a talk on "Liquid-liquid Interphase Tracking for Process Scale Up" (bottom right). The poster of Robin Dinter on the topic "Reaction Kinetic Investigation with Open-Source Microfluidic Conductivity Sensor" was also discussed. After the successful conference with lots of scientific exchange and new contacts, they definitely deserved their holiday in the "Sunshine State" and other parts of the US.

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June 2022 - Hydrodynamics supervision for further process control

Continuous process supervision is of great interest for nearly any (bio-)chemical process. In our laboratory an artificial intelligence-based optical sensor was developed to monitor a solvent extraction process. An image showing one of process is evaluated in 0.2 seconds/image. By detection of droplets and calculating their average size a fast solution for supervising the hydrodynamic behavior of the extraction process was developed.
Even overlapping droplets can be detected by the neural net. By improving the knowledge of the ongoing process further online process control can be applied.
The results were presented in a talk at the “Jahrestreffen der ProcessNet-Fachgruppen Extraktion, Phytoextrakte und Membrantechnik” in Frankfurt, May 23rd – 24th.

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May 2022 - Girls' and Boys' day at the laboratory of Equipment Design

On April 28, two young students visited our labs and gained a deeper insight into the development of modern chemical equipment and technology. Both were impressed by the enormous multitude of chemical process steps and their implementation with various measurement techniques and analytical methods in fume hoods. In particular, the opportunities of additive manufacturing in equipment design attracted their interest.
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April 2022 - Conferences take place in person again and the AD is joining them

In March, we finally presented and discussed our research and its results in face-to-face presentations at the 11th Workshop of Chemical and Biological Microlaboratory Technology in Ilmenau and at the annual meeting of the ProcessNet subject divison Crystallization in Dortmund. At the CBM Workshop in Ilmenau “Investigation of Highly Exothermic Reactions in Microfluidic Reaction Calorimeter” was presented by Aljoscha Frede and “Photoreactor Concept Developed by Rapid Prototyping for Microfluidic Flow Photochemistry” by Robin Dinter. At the annual meeting on Crystallization in Dortmund, Stefan Höving gave a talk on “Characterization of the Cooling Crystallization Step on a Quasi-Continuous and Modular Belt Filter Apparatus”. All AD staff are looking forward to conferences being held in person again this year as the exchange between academia and industry will be much more fruitful.

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March 2022 - Multipurpose sensor for continuous capillary flow in microreactors

The limited applicability and scarce availability of analytical instruments for micro- and millifluidic applications, which are of great interest for research and development, complicate process development, control and monitoring. Therefore, a low-cost sensor was developed to provide a modular, fast, non-invasive, versatile, and easy-to-use solution for detecting phase changes and concentrations of optically absorbing substances in single- and multiphase capillary flows. It aims to gain deeper insights into existing processes in areas of (bio)chemistry and reaction engineering.
In addition to the measurement of concentrations and slug lengths in continuous two-phase liquid flows, the application of the sensor for residence time measurements in a heat a exchanger, a tubular reactor for concentration measurements, a tubular crystallizer for the detection of suspensions and a pipetting robot for the automation of flows was presented. In all applications, either the level of automation was increased or more information was obtained about the system under study. Further applications will be explained, which will be realized in the near future.

Höving, S., Bobers, J. & Kockmann, N. Open-source multi-purpose sensor for measurements in continuous capillary flow. J Flow Chem (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41981-021-00214-w

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Febuary 2022 - We thank the workshop of the TU Dortmund for glassblowing a draft tube baffle (DTB) crystallizer

Industrial draft tube baffle (DTB) crystallizers are well known and can be found in many applications; however, DTBs are rarely investigated on the laboratory scale. A miniaturized DTB for continuous cooling crystallization with integrated fine-grain dissolution was designed, set up, and characterized. A typical DTB from the m3-scale was scaled down to 2 L filling volume to enable lab-scale investigations concerning process development. The fluid dynamic behavior was determined with suspension performance and residence time of the liquid and solid phase. Five different start-up variations were investigated for cooling crystallization of l-alanine dissolved in water. Hurdles with the periphery were identified, different start-up variations were tested, and the promising ones were determined. It was found that the residence time of the solid phase is shorter than the liquid phase due to the classifying behavior of the DTB, i.e., the crystal residence time could be shortened by decreasing the stirrer speed. The investigations show the potential of the miniaturized DTB for the process development of continuous procedure and small-scale production.

However, for continuous crystallization, there are some hurdles, too, regarding suspension handling. Therefore, to overcome clogging issues concerning the product discharge, due to the smaller dimensions of a continuous DTB crystallizer, a particle screw for supportive suspension discharge was developed and has been described. The presented particle screw showed negligible abrasion effects to the conveyed crystals. The investigations showed that the residence time of different particle sizes depends on the particle screw speed. Additionally, the continuous cooling crystallization experiments with 15 g min−1 confirm the supporting character of the suspension discharge by the particle screw. Thus, the newly developed particle screw for a supportive suspension discharge is well suited for continuous small scale crystallization.

We thank the workshop of the TU Dortmund for glassblowing, especially to Thomas Blöß (left picture); without such research would not have been possible.

Contact: Mira Schmalenberg

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January 2022 - Improving separation performance of the stirred-pulsed solvent extraction in a DN15 316Ti measurement cell. 

Based on the superior separation performance of the stirred-pulsed solvent extraction, a new concept of the stirred-pulsed extraction for an extended process range was designed and put into operation. The new concept allows extraction to be carried out at higher pressure and temperatures. Consequently, the mass transfer rate increases and thus increases the separation efficiency of the solvent extraction. Here, investigations with the EFCE standard test system water (continuous)/ acetone/ n-butyl acetate (disperse) for different mass transfer directions (c → d & d → c) were performed at a constant frequency and rotational speed.

Contact: Piriyanth Sakthithasan

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December 2021 - M.Sc. Aljoscha Frede, M.Sc Stefan Höving and M.Sc. Piriyanth Sakthithasan (Laboratory of Equipment Design) were honored with poster awards for their posters at the PAAT 2021. 

Aljoscha Frede and Stefan Höving were awarded at the annual meeting of the ProcessNet group PAAT (Prozess-, Apparate- und Anlagentechnik) with their posters “Automated Flow Calorimeter based on Modular Microreactor Integration” and “Quasi-continuous cooling crystallization on a novel belt filter apparatus” (1st place). Piriyanth Sakthithasan was awarded at the PAAT for his Poster “Numerical simulation of continuous phase mixing and residence time distribution in a stirred-pulsed solvent extraction column” (2nd place).

Contact: Aljoscha Frede, Stefan Höving, Piriyanth Sakthithasan

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November 2021 - Basics of additive manufacturing (3D-printing) in process technology [Grundlagen der additiven Fertigung (3D-Druck) in der Verfahrenstechnik]

During the newly in ST 2021 established extracurricular course "Basics of additive manufacturing (3D-printing) in process technology" bachelor students learned about the materials sience and technical background of 3D-printing. The course was supported by QVM funds and organized as a cooperation of APT and AD. Since the students feedback was good, a continuation of the course for the next semester is planned.
As a final project the students had to design 0.5L-pressure vessels that were subjected tu a pressure test. The burst pressure for all vessels was above 15 bar. The animation shows a slow-motion of the bursting vessels.

Contact: Stefan Höving

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October 2021 - M.Sc. Robin Dinter and M.Sc. Alexander Behr (Laboratory of Equipment Design) were honoured for their posters at the ECCE & ECAB 2021 with poster awards.

Robin Dinter from the laboratory of equipment design was awarded at the 13th European Congress of Chemical Engineering and 6th European Congress of Applied Biotechnology with his poster "Photoreactor Concept Developed by Rapid Prototyping for Flow Photochemistry" (2nd place). Katrin Rosenthal from the chair of Bioprocess Engineering and Alexander Behr from the laboratory of equipment design were awarded with the joint poster "Biocatalytic Reaction and Process Development using a Coiled Flow Inverter -From Reactor Concept to Ontology Design" (3rd place).

Contact: Alexander Behr, Robin Dinter

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September 2021 – Efficient AI-based Online Supervision Method for Determining the Operating State in Stirred Extraction Columns

Recent investigations show the superior monitoring performance of artificial intelligence based process supervision.  Here, an efficient online detection method using AI-based image classification to differentiate between regular operation and flooding is presented. An image showing one of these two states is evaluated in 0.043 seconds/image with a​ validation accuracy of 99.81%. Flooding is indicated by the non-uniform appearance of the liquid-liquid interphase (at the green arrow) and could reliably be found within this image time series.

Moreover, the size of the droplets can also be evaluated within three classes, small, medium and large-sized drops. The obtained results are utilized to develop a smart sensor that can control the column based on the image analysis.

Contact: L. Neuendorf

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August 2021 – Additive manufacturing for Spinning Band Distillation segments

Distillation is one of the most frequently used separation steps in process engineering.

A modular continuously operated spinning band distillation column for small product amounts was developed and characterized regarding operating window and separation efficiency. More information can be found under March 2018 – “Lab-scaled continuous operated spinning band column”. The column can be used either for first product amounts within a small-scale production or as feasibility studies for distillation in a scale-up context with small amounts of resources, energy and time. With additive manufacturing, a special internal segment fabricated allowing for feed input at the top of the spinning band. The feed stream is guided through the central bore and can be fed at a variable position. A simple exchange of the outlet segment can change the feed point adjusted to changing inlet concentrations.

L. Bittorf, N. Böttger, D. Neumann, A. Winter, N. Kockmann, Characterization of an automated spinning band column as a module for laboratory distillation, Chem. Eng. & Technol., accepted paper, July 2021. https://doi.org/10.1002/ceat.202000602

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July 2021 – Successful completion of the Hackathon

On Tuesday, June 16th, the Hackathon challenge as well as the two winning solutions were presented live at the Achema Pulse. Out of 14 submissions 13 teams were able to solve the challenge quite well. The highly motivated winner teams stood out with an efficient artificial intelligence (AI) solution and a specially developed preprocessing routine. Thus they were able to solve the challenge with over 99 % accuracy and in just two seconds for over 3000 beforehand unseen test images.

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June 2021 - Contributions to the Journal of Flow Chemistry

The Laboratory of Equipment Design contributes to the Special Issue „Engineering Aspects of Flow Chemistry“ in the Springer Journal „Journal of Flow Chemistry“ with 4 full papers and one perspective. The featured articles demonstrate the diversity of research activities in the Laboratory of Equipment Design in the field of flow chemistry. Topics range from continuous ultrasound nucleation and crystallization (1), self-optimization of yield and by-product formation (2), and tomographic investigation of Dean flow (3) to continuous reaction calorimetry (4) and investigations on mass transfer and bubble break up in micronozzles (5).

Publications

  1. Schmalenberg, M., Weick, L.K. & Kockmann, N. Nucleation in continuous flow cooling sonocrystallization for coiled capillary crystallizers. J Flow Chem (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41981-020-00138-x
  2. Fath, V. Lau, P. Greve, C. Weller, P. Kockmann, N. Röder, T. Simultaneous self-optimisation of yield and by-product formation through successive combination of inline FT-IR spectroscopy and online mass spectrometry. J Flow Chem (2021).  (in press)
  3. Schuler, J., Herath, J. & Kockmann, N. 3D investigations of microscale mixing in helically coiled capillaries. J Flow Chem (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41981-021-00161-6
  4. Frede, T.A., Dietz, M. & Kockmann, N. Software-guided microscale flow calorimeter for efficient acquisition of thermokinetic data. J Flow Chem (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41981-021-00145-6
  5. Reichmann, F. Herath, J. Mensing, L. Kockmann N. Gas-liquid mass transfer intensification for bubble generation and breakup in micronozzles.  J Flow Chem (2021). (in press)

Contact: M. Schmalenberg, J. Schuler, T.A. Frede, N. Kockmann

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Mai 2021 - Doctoral examination at AD

We congratulate Verena Fath on the successful completion of her doctoral examination. Ms. Fath investigated the application of complex reactions in microreactors in her dissertation "Continuous Processing of Complex Chemical Reactions with Autonomous Self Optimization".

We would like to thank her for the time with us and wish her all the best for the future.

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April 2021 - 10 years of Equipment Design at BCI

On Friday, April 1, 2011 the newly appointed professor started his job at the TU Dortmund. In a car with trailer almost 30 moving boxes with books and work equipment were loaded, which were brought up to the designated offices with the help of Mr. Kerzel and the mechanical workshop. A laptop had already been prepared by RBG so that the central servers and the new printer could also be accessed. This was possible because various meetings at the TU Dortmund and at INVITE in Leverkusen had already taken place during the preparation phase. Thus, the building department of the TU was already involved in the run-up because of the laboratory rebuilding.

On Wednesday, April 6, 2011, the first exercise on "Apparatus Technology for Bio- and Chemical Engineers" took place, followed by the first lecture on April 7, 2011, in front of about 180 students.

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March 2021 – Good Start into the KEEN Hackathon – Registration still open

The Kickoff event into the KEEN Hackathon with over 100 attendees provided a good start into the two Hackathon challenges. The first one is conducted by ABB and deals with the development of smart data cleaning solutions. The second one is provided by ApparateDesign TU Dortmund and deals with image classification in an extraction column. Here two operating states, regulary operation and flooding, an unwanted, faulty state of the extraction column should be recognized by AI. The participants can choose which kind of AI they want to use in the problem in order to classify images of these two operating states. Labelled image data sets, one for testing, one for validation are provided. The submitted solutions should be in the programming languages Python or R. Registration is still open for all data scientists, machine learners, process engineers, process technicians and programming-savvy STEM students until May 4th.

Final submission is May 11th and the finalists teams get to pitch their solution at the ACHEMA Pulse with a chance to win up to 1500 €

Further information and registration: https://www.achema.de/en/the-achema/innovation-challenge/keen-challenge

Contact: L. Neuendorf

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February 2021 - Efficient Shortcut Method for Determining the Process Window in Stirred‐Pulsed Extraction Columns

Recent studies showed the superior separation performance of stirred‐pulsed columns of different diameters in liquid‐liquid extraction processes. Here, an efficient shortcut method will be presented, which is time and resource‐efficient as well as cost‐effective to determine the operational window of these columns for industrial separation tasks. Savings in time of less experiments and costs of materials consumption can be estimated with up to 30 %. The presented method is particularly suitable before the application of new chemical systems, which are particularly cost‐intensive and scarce in material supply.

Contact: M. Schmalenberg, T. A. Frede

Corresponding publication: M. Schmalenberg, T. A. Frede, C. Mathias, N. Kockmann, Chemie Ingenieur Technik, Efficient Shortcut Method for Determining the Process Window in Stirred‐Pulsed Extraction Columns, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1002/cite.202000066

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January 2021 – Bionic optimization of pressure Vessel Support Structures

The use of lightweight structures with bionic designs have made their way into the fields of architecture and aeronautics. An example for bionic optimization methods is the topology optimization, which is inspired by the growth behavior of bones. In this optimization the SIMP (solid isotropic material with penalization) method is used. In a oversized design space material is removed and distributed according to the loads of a reference model. The comparison of FEM simulation results of design approaches developed by topology optimization with standard designs by guidelines (e.g. DIN, AD2000, ASME) show lower masses and higher stiffness of topology optimized support structures. Especially in the region of linear-elastic material behavior bionic support structures have superior characteristics in the form of stresses and masses.

Contact: Daniel Becker
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December 2020 - Merry Christmas and a happs new year!

The year 2020, which is affected by the Corona pandemic, is ending. Although there were some hurdles due to the changeover to digital teaching, as well as digital lectures by doctoral candidates and graduate students had to be newly established, we can look back on a successful year.

We congratulate Waldemar Krieger, Felix Reichmann, and Sebastian Soboll on achieving the doctorate. The Laboratory of Equipment Designs takes the opportunity to say goodbye to Lutz Kaiser and Waldemar Krieger, who left the group this summer, and we wish them the best for their future. On the other hand, we would like to welcome again our new research associates Stefan Höving, Robin Dinter, Jonas Oeing, and Laura Neuendorf who will reinforce the team in the ongoing years. At the end of the year, we would like to thank our supporters, the mechanical workshops, the electric workshops, the glass blowing manufacturers, and particularly the students who do research with us together and the alumni who always support us with advice.

We bid farewell in this very digital year with a digital Christmas party and wish you a Merry Christmas and a happy and healthy New Year!

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November 2020 - AD participates in consortium NFDI4Cat

With catalysts chemical reactions are accelerated and become more efficient in the consumption of energy and resources. They represent the most powerful methodological tool to reduce energy intensity of many industrial processes and reducing their environmental burden. Catalysis is a complex field of science so much data is produced during research handling different kinds of information on a process. To get a better understanding and develop new, better catalysts, a unified view on catalysis is needed. The aim of NFDI4Cat is to provide this unified view. This is to be achieved by an ontology which interconnects different type of data in a machine and human comprehendible way (see figure).

Contact: Alexander Behr

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October 2020 - Two doctoral examinations at AD

We congratulate Felix Reichmann and Sebastian Soboll on the successful completion of their doctoral examination.
Mr. Reichmann investigated microreactors and his dissertation is entitled "Continuous Reaction Calorimetry for Intensified Reaction Systems". Mr. Soboll examined stirred pulsed extraction columns with regard to their scale-up behaviour. His doctoral thesis is titled "Hydrodynamik und Stofftransport in gerührten Extraktionskolonnen mit simultaner Pulsation".
We would like to thank both of them for their time with us and wish them all the best for the future.

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September 2020 - Lehrstuhlausflug der AD

Am Donnerstag, den 27.08.2020 hatten wir unter Coronabedingungen unseren diesjährigen Lehrstuhlausflug der AD. Bei gutem Wetter starteten wir gegen 9 Uhr mit einer wunderschönen Radtour quer durch Dortmunds Natur, Richtung Phönixsee. Nach einer wohlverdienten Pause und einer leckeren Stärkung radelten wir weiter zum Phönixwest Gelände und erwarteten das Highlightprogramm des Tages, den Skywalk! Eine faszinierende Tour auf der Hochofenanlage von Phönix West. Über ein Gasrohr spazierten wir in 25 m Höhe ins Innere des alten Geländes, besichtigten den Hochofen und hörten unserer Tourführerin Heike Regener begeistert zu. Am Ende wurden wir mit einer grandiosen Aussicht aus fast 70 m Höhe auf die Industriegeschichte Dortmunds belohnt. Ein rundum gelungener Tag! Besser hätten unsere 4 „Neulinge“, die Doktoranden Laura Neuendorf, Jonas Oeing, Stefan Höving und Robin Dinter den Ausflug nicht planen können! Vielen Dank!

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August 2020 - Artificial Intelligence enters the process industry

As part of the KEEN project a comprehensive AI project starts at the Laboratory of equipment design. Methods for AI-based optimization and engineering of process plants are developed and analyzed. While one major research focus is based on image recognition of liquid-liquid systems, another concentrates on the development of AI-supported HAZOP analyses. This allows the extraction of semantic relationships by artificial neural networks and thus makes them available for future safety considerations (see figure).

Contact: Jonas Oeing, Laura Neuendorf

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July 2020 - Methodology for transferring (bio-)chemistry from Batch to Continuous Flow

The coiled flow inverter (CFI) is a promising reactor design providing enhanced heat and mass transfer, narrow residence time distribution, and rapid mixing for a methodology for the transfer of (bio-)chemical reactions in batch mode to two-phase continuous flow. First, this methodology is used for current development of a droplet-based reaction screening system, which was first tested with an automated Paal-Knorr pyrrole synthesis as model reaction. Second, we investigated the bio-catalyzed oxidation of ABTS by the enzyme laccase in a straight capillary for process development in a CFI. An optical evaluation method for determination of reaction rate was used. Comparing Michaelis-Menten kinetic of the batch reaction and the continuous reaction in a capillary, the results show that the batch reaction can be mapped to the capillary setup.

Corresponding publication: Jens Bobers, Julia Gruehn, Stefan Hoeving, Tobias Pyka, Norbert Kockmann Two-phase Flow in Coiled Flow Inverter – Process Development from Batch to Continuous Flow. acs Org. Process Res. Dev. DOI: doi.org/10.1021/acs.oprd.0c00152

Contact: Julia Grühn, Jens Bobers

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June 2020 – Doctoral examination with protective mask

In times of corona, new solutions for exams are needed, including new formats for doctoral examinations. In compliance with the minimum distance and safety regulations, the faculty of BCI decided to permit doctoral examinations in attendance of doctoral candidate and assessors. External assessors as well as faculty members can participate via conferencing services such as Zoom or Webex to ensure the public form of examination.

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May 2020 - Vorbereitung von digitaler Lehre im SoSe 20

Aufgrund der Corona-Pandemie stellt die Arbeitsgruppe Apparatedesign die Lehre auf digitale Inhalte um. Für Vorlesungen wie Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP), Sicherheitstechnik und Apparatetechnik oder die englisch-sprachigen Angebote Drops, Bubbles and Films werden die Vorlesungsfolien vertont. Videos mit den Rechenwegen und Lösungen werden für die Übung in Apparatetechnik produziert, die zusammen mit digitalen Sprechstunden auch einen reibungslosen Übungsbetrieb sicherstellen werden.

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April 2020 - Whole team of Equipment Design is working at home

Due to the current corona crisis, the AD team is staying at home. The laboratory will remain closed and lectures and exercises will be digitalized. Many of those responsible persons are currently looking for solutions and best practices for implementing digital teaching. Please check the pages of the respective lecture for more information.
Discussions with students will take place via video conference, deadlines for final theses have been extended and submissions will only be made digitally. If you have any questions about courses or organizational matters, please contact the responsible persons by email.

#stayathome

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March 2020 - Design of an Automated Reagent-Dispensing System for Reaction Screening and Validation with DNA-tagged Substrates

In cooperation with the medicinal chemistry, an automated system for dispensing reagents for DNA-encoded chemistry based on an open-source 3D printer model was developed. It was validated by applying a complex three-component Povarov reaction from DNA-tagged aldehydes, electron-rich olefins, and anilines to DNA-tagged hexahydropyrroloquinolines. A surface-active polymer was used to mediate the reaction between DNA-tagged aldehydes, the hydrophobic anilines, and the olefin. We tested the reaction with an aniline and olefin, each dissolved as stock in five organic solvents. Head-to-head comparison of manually performed and automatically performed experiments by the robot showed that the ADoS reproduced the manually pipetted reactions faithfully and reached yields above 90 % with a polymer concentration of 500 µM.

Contact: Jens Bobers

Corresponding publication: Bobers, J.; Klika Škopić, M.; Dinter, R.; Sakthithasan, P.; Neukirch, L.; Gramse, C.: Weberskirch, R.; Brunschweiger, A.; Kockmann, N. Design of an Automated Reagent-Dispensing System for Reaction Screening and Validation with DNA-tagged Substrates. ACS Comb. Sci. DOI: 10.1021/acscombsci.9b00207

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February 2020 - Design and Hydrodynamic Characterization of a Draft Tube Baffle Tank for Lab‐Scale

For process development on lab‐scale, it is necessary to have equipment that represents the industrial apparatuses as similar as possible to offer short time‐to‐market. Accordingly, a draft tube baffle (DTB) crystallizer was scaled down from typical m3‐scale to 1 L filling volume and manufactured by the glass blowing workshop of TU Dortmund University. The suspension characteristics were determined for fluidized crystals in saturated solution. For further characterization of the DTB tank, the residence time of the liquid and solid phases were experimentally determined for the continuous operation mode. Additionally, the classifying behavior of the particles in the DTB was investigated. A draft tube baffle tank was developed for lab‐scale operation. The hydrodynamic behavior was investigated by analyzing the residence time distribution of the liquid and solid phase as well as the suspension and classification behavior.

Contact: Mira Schmalenberg

Corresponding publication: M. Schmalenberg, A.-K. Nocon, N. Kockmann, Chemie Ingenieur Technik, Design and Hydrodynamic Characterization of a Draft Tube Baffle Tank for Lab‐Scale, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1002/cite.201900078

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January 2020 - Exkursion Emsland Stärke

Im Rahmen der Gruppenarbeit haben 9 Studierende inklusive ihrer Betreuer Julia Schuler und Jens Bobers und Prof. Kockmann am 17.01.20 die Emsland Group am Standort Emlichheim besucht. Großen Anklang fand die Endpräsentation der Gruppe mit dem Thema „Proteingewinnung aus der Kartoffelstärkeproduktion“ bei diversen Mitgliedern der Emsland Group aus Forschung & Entwicklung, Produktion und Technika. Die Gruppe besichtigte die Produktionsanlage zur Gewinnung von Kartoffelstärke und hat einen spannenden Einblick in Labore und Technika zur Entwicklung von Lebensmitteln und technischen Produkten basierend auf modifizierter Stärke erhalten.

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December 2019 - We wish you a merry christmas!

The eventful year 2019 is reaching the end. We congratulate Dr. Lukas Hohmann on achieving the doctorate with distinction. The Laboratory of Equipment Designs takes the opportunity to say goodbye to Waldemar Krieger, who left the group this summer, and wish him the best for his future. On the other hand, we would like to welcome again our new research associates Daniel Becker, Lutz Kaiser, Piriyanth Sakthithasan, and Aljoscha Frede, who will reinforce the team in the ongoing years. At the end of the year, we would like to thank our supporters, particularly the students who do research together with us and the alumni who always support us with advice.

We wish you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!

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November 2019 - AD at conferences

This year we presented and discussed our research and its results at the ECCE in Florence (September 2019) and at the PAAT in Dortmund (November 2019). At the ECCE in Florence “Application of MicroCT for the Visualization of Mulitphase Phenomena in Small Ducts” was presented by Julia Schuler and “Characterization of a Microfluidic Device Manufactured by Reactive Ion Etching” by Jens Bobers. The posters of Julia Grühn on the topic “Selectivity of Gas-Liquid Reactions in Straight and Coiled Capillaries and CFI” and Mira Schmalenberg on the topic “Comparison of Miniaturized Draft Tube Baffle and Coiled Flow Inverter Crystallizer Construction” were also discussed.

At PAAT Daniel Becker gave a talk on “Design of Bionic Structures for Pressure Vessel Elements”. Lukas Bittorf and Mira Schmalenberg held a tandem talk on “Modular Automation and Feasibility Study of Different Component Systems for Stirred Pulsed Extraction Columns” as part of the ENPRO2.0 project, which also shows how the subprojects of ENPRO2.0 exchange ideas with each other. Additionally, Lukas Bittorf could exchange about his poster “Service oriented architecture for an automated laboratory distillation process module” and Julia Grühn about her poster “Untersuchungen von Gas/Flüssig-Reaktionen im Coiled Flow Inverter (CFI) zur Skalierung vom Labor- in den Produktionsmaßstab” with other participants.

Contact: Staff

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October 2019 - Coalescence studies with open source components

To demonstrate the potential of rapid prototyping and physical computing in laboratories and process development, it was possible to set up an Arduino based camera system with open-source components. With this set up, phase separation was detected visually and coalescence diagrams could be recorded automatically. Based on these studies, parameters for process development and control can be derived. Embedded in the KEEN initiative for the integration of AI-supported tools in the process industry, it was shown, that physical computing in a research environment is getting more important in the fundamental education of process engineers.

Contact: Lutz Kaiser

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September 2019 – Structural optimization with diatom combs

The examination of possible structural optimization is an essential part in the use of lightweight design. A promising approach to structural optimization is the use of bionic structures coupled with evolutionary algorithms. 
As an example of the potential of this optimization strategy, a lightweight design was developed for a blind flange with the aid of diatom combs. Diatoms are a type of algae and occur in nature in many different types and structures. The different shapes of the diatom can be examined with the help of parameterizable CAD drawings and FEM simulations. The geometric parameters are optimized by an evolutionary algorithm that minimizes the weight and occuring stresses in the component. With this method it was possible to reduce the weight of a blind flange by ca. 50% in comparison to an conventional blind flange under same loads. A first demonstrator was 3D printed in PLA.

Contact: Daniel Becker

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August 2019 - This years AD chair trip to Hüttenwerke Krupp Mannesmann

On July 19, 2019, the whole laboratory of Equipment Design with students, assistants, technical and administrative staff had a great trip to the steelwork Hüttenwerke Krupp Mannesmann in Duisburg. After a short introduction to the company and a video of „Die Sendung mit der Maus“ there was a guided tour through the whole manufacturing process from iron ore to steel. We would like to thank HKM and the guides who made this possible. The afternoon ended with barbecue and beach volleyball at the Baldeney lake in Essen.

Contact: Norbert Kockmann

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July 2019 - Exkursion Boehringer Ingelheim

Am 3. Juli 2019 hat im Rahmen der GMP-Vorlesung eine Gruppe Studierender mit Prof. Norbert Kockmann und MSc. Julia Schuler die Fa. Boehringer Ingelheim besucht. Neben dem Kennenlernen der Gesamtstruktur eines forschenden pharmazeutischen Unternehmens konnten die Studierenden auch Einblicke in den Ingenieursalltag gewinnen. Eine Führung durch das Info-Center sowie eine Busfahrt über das Werksgelände und der Besuch des Tablettier- und Verpackungsbetriebs rundeten die Erfahrungen ab. Hautnah konnte das Phytozentrum und die Pflanzenextraktion erlebt werden. Hr. Dr. Hagels und seine Kollegen leiteten sehr fachkundig die Führungen. Vielen Dank dafür.

Contact: Norbert Kockmann

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June 2019 – Engineering meets Art - Ausstellung im Dortmunder U

Zum Anlass des 50jährigen Jubiläums der Fakultät Bio- und Chemieingenieurwesen arbeiteten Studierende der Ingenieurwissenschaften zusammen mit Studierenden der Musik und Fotografie im Rahmen des Engineering meets Art  Projektes interdisziplinär und erschufen Kunstwerke verschiedenster Art. Dabei ist beispielsweise die Arbeit von Alexander Gunkel in Kooperation der Arbeitsgruppe Apparatedesign mit dem Lehrstuhl für Festoffverfahrenstechnik entstanden, die das mittels einer Hochgeschwindigkeitskamera in Millisekunden aufgelöste Platzen einer Flasche zeigt. Die platzende Flasche ist am 12.06.2019 als Film auf den Bildschirmen am Dortmunder U zu sehen. Die dazugehörige Ausstellung im Dortmunder U ist noch bis zum 23.06.2019 geöffnet.


Contact: Jens Bobers
BDM EmA

May 2019 – Local mass transfer and flow phenomena in slug flow

The implementation of conventional sensors is a drawback when investigating mass transfer phenomena within microstructured devices, since they disturb the flow and reactor characteristics. Recently, we developed a non-invasive colorimetric method to acquire local mass transfer information in slug flow. By introducing an Arduino based slider setup, which is equipped with a computer-vision system to track the flow, it is possible to capture the entire life time of a single slug and provide valuable data for the development of theoretical models and validation of numerical simulations.
This setup demonstrates how open-source soft- and hardware can enhance analytical tools and contribute to the fundamental understanding of gas-liquid mass transfer phenomena.

Contact: Waldemar Krieger

Corresponding publication: W. Krieger, J. Lamsfuß, W. Zhang, N. Kockmann. Local Mass Transfer Phenomena and Chemical Selectivity of Gas-Liquid Reactions in Capillaries. Chem. Eng. Technol.  2017, vol. 40 (11), p. 2134-2143

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April 2019 - Nature as a model for modern technologies 

The application of biological principles of action to technical applications is described by bionics. Typical fields of work include materials science, sensor technology and mechanics. The biological sample is first modeled and then the application case is simulated. An example for the application of bionic principles in structural mechanics is the use of honeycombs in lightweight construction. Instead of solid material, a sandwich structure with honeycombs is used as filling material. This allows savings in terms of weight and material with the same mechanical load capacity. The use of bionic lightweight construction methods is not yet established in apparatus engineering and will therefore be a task for the future.

Contact: Daniel Becker

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March 2019 - Equipment design for the skin of a (bio-)chemical process

The apparatus forms the shell of chemical or physical processes and determines the efficiency and safety of a chemical production plant. Well characterized, robust and scalable apparatuses are important for optimal chemical production and fast, reliable process development from laboratory to production. Based on well-known concepts, we develop miniaturized apparatuses that fit into a fume hood, but offer the full functionality of conventional process steps. In reactors with channels smaller than 3 mm, the so-called microreactors, we can carry out chemical reactions with little consumption but high functionality. With Peltier elements, we measure the heat release of exothermic reactions. In helical tube reactors we can adjust a narrow residence time distribution and influence the selectivity of multiphase chemical reactions. In addition to chemical reactions, separation processes are very important for the efficiency of a chemical process. For example, we have developed the smallest stirred extraction column with an internal diameter of 15 mm, which enables a countercurrent of the two phases through targeted pulsation. A distillation column with rotating internals and an internal diameter of 25 mm allows for continuous separation of mixtures with low flow rates. We can even carry out continuous cooling crystallization in the helical tube. The columns can be interconnected with microreactors and other separation equipment to form a modular overall process with integrated sensors.

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February 2019 – Excursion to Merck KGaA, Darmstadt

Within the framework of this semesters‘s group project, 9 students, along with members of the group of Equipment Design and  other guests from the faculty, visited Merck KGaA in Darmstadt on January 31th 2019. The students succesfully presented the results of their group project „ Development of a modular multi-purpose plant for the production of liquid crystals“.  Thereafter, all participants gained valuable insights into fields of activities for chemical and bio engineers at Merck. Students and research associates visited laboratories and pilot plants and learned about the interesting history of Merck at „Corporate History“. All 16 participants were  overwhelmed by the variety of impressions.

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January 2019 – Automated liquid handling and dosage systems for chemical screening platform

Exploring new chemical spaces for new reactions, catalysts and molecules is limited by error-prone and time-consuming manual work. Automated, microfluidic and drop-based screening platforms enable massive parallelization of chemical reactions and thus rapid screening of a wide variety of compounds. For this purpose, an automated liquid handling system is required to mix different reactants and dose them into a microreactor. A fully automated and customizable system based on an open source 3D printer design is being developed.
Contact: Jens Bobers

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December 2018 - Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year

The eventful year 2018 is coming to an end. The Laboratory of Equipment Designs takes the opportunity to say goodbye to Sebastian Soboll and Felix Reichmann, who left the group this autumn, and wish them the best for their future. On the other hand, we would like to welcome again our new research associates Lukas Bittorf, Mira Schmalenberg, Jens Bobers, Julia Schuler and Julia Grühn, who will reinforce the team in the years to come. At the end of the year, we would like to thank our supporters, particularly the students who do research together with us and the alumni who always support us with advice. We wish you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!

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November 2018 - Superposition of Taylor and Dean vortices in coiled capillaries

Taylor and Dean flow are two flow patterns that enhance mass transfer and can be observed in capillaries. Recent studies have shown that a combination of these two plow patterns can lead to further increase of mass transfer. By utilizing a colorimetric method based on the consecutive oxidation of leuco-indigo carmine it is possible to visualize the superposition of Taylor and Dean vortices for a gas-liquid system. Depending on the flow conditions different flow regimes were identified that imply different intensities of the respective vortices. For one case a stratified gas distribution is observed, while the other case is characterized by a good radial distribution of dissolved gas within the liquid slug. In between a transition occurs that shows properties of both regimes. Further work will be dedicated to defining these transitions and describing the impact on the selectivity.

Contact: Waldemar Krieger

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October 2018 – Investigation of liquid/liquid flows using Micro computed tomography (μ-CT)

For the examination of multiphase interfaces a non-invasive imaging technique is desirable. Micro computed tomography offers the possibility of the 3 dimensional representation of an object up to resolutions in the submicron range, even in opaque media. CT is based on the attenuation of X-Rays which is proportional to the density of the sample material, its atomic number and also the energy of the X-Rays used for the scan. Thus it is possible not only to gain information about the spatial extension of a single phase but much more to distinguish between different materials and thus information about the spatial extension of different multiphase interfaces. The current picture of the month shows a PTFE tube partially filled with silicone oil, water and air scanned with our Bruker Skyscan 1275.

Contact: Julia Schuler

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September 2018 - Reactive ion etching for microstructured devices

Reactive ion etching provides a dry etching mechanism, which leads to a highly precise and anisotropic etching behavior. A new manufacturing process for polyimide-based microstructured devices with low surface roughness was developed and applied on reactor geometry for liquid-liquid two-phase-flow. The geometry is evolved to create droplets via flow focusing as the dispersed phase is incised by two continuous phase inlet streams. The droplets are created, when the channel is widened from 100 µm to 300 µm. In order to keep the pressure loss for the developed reactor geometry as small as possible, the manufacturing process was optimized with a view to minimizing surface roughness by using Design of Experiments.

Contact: Jens Bobers

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August 2018 - Gas-liquid mass transfer enhancement in micronozzles

Micronozzles can be used for the refinement of gas/liquid flow in order to reduce mass transport limitations. The interfacial area is increased due to the micronozzle induced bubble breakub. In this study, the mass transport coefficient was determined for a microchannel containing a micronozzle and a straight reference channel. For this, a colorimetric method based on the oxidation of dihydroresorufin was employed. Pictures were taken with a high speed camera. After image processing, fields of concentrations could be visualized using heat maps and quantified. A clear enhancement of mass transport using the micronozzle could be found.

Contact: Felix Reichmann

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Reference channel: Taylor flow, 20 ml/min
Ref 20 mL_min (0,05 s)
Reference channel: Bubbly flow, 35 ml/minRef 35 mL_min (0,05 s)

Micronozzle: Laminar breakup, 80 ml/min
Laminarer Aufbruch 80 mL_min (0,0167 s)

Micronozzle: Turbulent breakup, 120 ml/minTurbulenter Aufbruch 120 mL_min (0,01 s)

July 2018 - Micro–Computed Tomography (µ-CT)

Since June 2018, the Laboratory of Equipment Design has the opportunity of 3D-scanning by X-ray. The SkyScan 1275 from Bruker together with sophisticated analysis software enables clear 3D-images from various objects. A first test image was taken from a play figure, given with a cross sectional view of the polymer bodies. The Grand Smurf is composed of different parts such as the cap, head and body, or legs. Further investigations will include liquid slugs in capillaries or microfluidic chips.
Contact: Julia Schuler
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June 2018 - Modular Coiled Flow Inverter Crystallizer (CFIC) 

Production of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals often includes solid-liquid suspension flow. For continuous cooling a tubular crystallizer was designed based on the coiled flow inverter (CFI) concept, providing a narrow residence time distribution (RTD) of the liquid phase. Counter-current cooling in a tube-in-tube heat exchange concept was designed and allows an adjustment of the temperature profile. Successful operation of up to 50 g∙min-1 in a compact designed prototype with 4 mm inner diameter was scaled down to a modular CFI crystallizer (CFIC) with an inner diameter of 1.6 mm and varying length from 7.8 to 54.6 m. This leads to a significantly lower consumption of chemicals in process development with lower total mass flow rates of 15 – 20 g∙min-1. Due to modular design, mean residence time (3.8 to 6.9 min) and mean cooling rate (0.6 to 1.4 K∙min-1) can be varied at constant mass flow rate. Crystallization growth rate and yield are analyzed with the L-alanine/water test system and seed crystals of 125 – 180 µm. The next step is to characterize the CFIC in detail for different cooling rates, seed amount and seed crystal size. 

 Contact: Mira Schmalenberg

Corresponding publication: M. Schmalenberg, L. Hohmann, N. Kockmann. Miniaturized Tubular Cooling Crystallizer with Solid-Liquid Flow for Process Development. Conference Paper ASME- ICNMM2018, 10-13.06.2018, Dubrovnik Croatia, ICNMM2018-7660

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May 2018 - Thin film resistance thermometer on polyimide foil for micro reactors
 

Besides the common benefits like enhanced mass and heat transfer, micro-structured reactors have drawbacks due to their micro-scaled structures. Measuring temperature is an important issue for micro process engineering. High solution, non-invasive measurement and robustness are requirements, which should be met by the measuring method.
Thin film technology combines the possibility to manufacture micro scaled structures with great flexibility in choosing material and geometry of the structures. Layers of aluminum with a thickness in nanometer scale are deposed on flexible polyimide foil and structured to obtain conductor tracks, which are used as temperature sensors.
The next step is combining a micro-structured reactor and temperature sensors on a single polyimide foil using reactive ion beam etching to create micro channels inside the polyimide foil.

Contact: Jens Bobers

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April 2018 - Arduino based slider setup for bubble tracking in Taylor flow
 

Recently, low-cost hardware platforms such as Arduino have received increasing attention for equipment and process development. In this work, a vision sensor board (Pixy CMUcam5) is utilized to detect and track bubbles in gas-liquid Taylor flow. Information on the bubble position are processed by an Arduino microcontroller in order to motorize a slider setup that carries the Pixy cam and a DSLR camera. This setup allows for dynamic and automatic microfluidic investigations providing extensive insight into gas-liquid mass transfer and hydrodynamics.

Contact: Waldemar Krieger

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March 2018 - Lab-scaled continuous operated spinning band column

Distillation as one of the oldest known separation techniques is widely used in chemical industry. Due to the upcoming change in the modern industry to flexible production with versatile modular plants, it is of high interest to develop continuous operating columns for laboratory scale. This is realized with a continuous operated spinning band column with low hold-up and low pressure drop but high separation efficiency as one possible module for modular plants.

For characterization purposes it is of interest to know the distribution of liquid droplets on the rotating spinning band and the mean residence time of liquid, flowing down the column. For first approaches, this can be conducted with dyed water. Hence, a mean residence time can be calculated for different rotation speeds as well as several feed flows and boiling rates.

Contact: Lukas Bittorf

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February 2018 - Development of a surface-coated polymer plate reactor

In an effort to improve mechanical stability for an existing microreactor system made from PVDF-foils [1], a surface-coated microreactor was developed. Stability is provided by a PMMA polymer block, which serves as a base plate. Due to its optical transparency, PMMA allows for optical investigations of processes within the reactor. However, PMMA features little chemical resistance. Therefore, the PMMA plate is coated with a PVDF-foil of 100 µm in thickness. The coating and simultaneous structuring of the channel are carried out via ultrasonic hot embosssing and the sealing of the channel is realized by yet another PVDF-foil in an ultrasonic hot welding process step. The newly developed microreactor shows great results in terms of mixing behavior, residence time distribution and mechanical stability [2]. Application in a developed continuous reaction calorimeter employing highly exothermic chemical reactions showed promising results.

Contact: Felix Reichmann

Corresponding publication: [1] Tollkötter et al., Ultrasonic Hot Embossed Polymer Microreactors for Optical Measurement of Chemical Reactions, Chem. Eng. Technol., vol. 38 (7), pp. 1113-1121, 2014. DOI: 10.1002/ceat.201400522
[2] Hoehr, Reichmann et al., Ultrasonic fabrication of polymer plate reactors with a surface coating, in process.

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January 2018 - Exkursion zu Sartorius AG und Boehringer Ingelheim

Am 9. und 10. Januar 2018 macht die Arbeitsgruppe Apparatedesign unterstützt durch den Lehrstuhl FSV eine Exkursion zu Sartorius in Göttingen und Boehringer in Ingelheim. Studierende aus den Vorlesungen Pharmaverfahrenstechnik, Good Manufacturing Practice und Mikroverfahrenstechnik bekamen einen sehr guten Einblick in moderne Produktionsmethoden und Tätigkeitsfelder von Bio- und Chemieingenieuren. Ca. 20 Studierende besichtigten Reinräume und chemische Produktionsstätten und waren von der Vielfalt der Eindrücke begeistert.

Contact: Norbert Kockmann

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December 2017 - Flooding in DN15 stirred-pulsed extraction column
 

In extraction columns, breakdown of the counter-current flow resulting from too high flow rates or an excessive energy input is called flooding. In the DN15 extraction column, flooding is visually detected. During normal operation, the stirred cells in the column are filled with many small droplets (yellow dyed organic phase), which are surrounded by the continuous phase. However, when the flooding point is reached, intense coalescence of the droplets at the column wall and column internals occurs. Consequently, the droplets form a second continuous phase, which leads to plugging of the column.

Contact: Sebastian Soboll

Corresponding publication: S. Soboll, I. Hagemann, N. Kockmann. Performance of Laboratory-Scale Stirred-Pulsed Extraction Columns with Different Diameters. Chem. Ing. Tech., 2017, 89, 1611-1618.

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November 2017 - Gas-liquid mass transfer and selectivity in coiled capillaries

Gas-liquid mass transfer can be enhanced by employing helically coiled capillaries, which induce Dean vortices and improve radial mixing. A colorimetric method based on the consecutive oxidation of leuco-indigo carmine was utilized to investigate mass transfer and chemical selectivity in straight and coiled capillaries with high temporal and spatial resolution. Significant differences in concentration distributions were observed as a result of different flow characteristics. Coiled capillaries provided higher conversion, but lower selectivity towards the intermediate product compared to straight capillaries.

Contact: Waldemar Krieger

Corresponding publication: W. Krieger, J. Lamsfuß, W. Zhang, N. Kockmann. Local Mass Transfer Phenomena and Chemical Selectivity of Gas-Liquid Reactions in Capillaries. Chem. Eng. Technol.  2017, vol. 40 (11), p. 2134-2143

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Contact

Photo of Prof. Dr.-Ing. Norbert Kockmann

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Norbert Kockmann

Telephone: 0231 755-8077
Fax: 0231 755-8084

Address:

Technische Universität Dortmund
Fakultät Bio- und Chemieingenieurwesen
Arbeitsgruppe ApparateDesign
Geschossbau 3

Room 511